MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRAND (handled)   SWIFT BINOCULARS, APOLLO BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed and/or imported ) SWIFT BINOCULARS, AUDUBON BINOCULARS, TRITON BINOCULARS, TECNAR BINOCULARS, TECHNAR BINOCULARS, SCOUT BINOCULARS, SARATOGA BINOCULARS, SKIPPER BINOCULARS, NEWPORT BINOCULARS, PANORAMIC BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: UK COMPANIES HOUSE, PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, DUE DIL

      UK

   MARKET

Text Box:     VINTAGE MINIATURE BINOCULARS

Japanese External Reverse Porro Prism Binoculars.   VIRTUAL MUSEUM

MARK OHNO

Text Box:      NAVIGATION: I WANT TO SEE:

Please note: a great amount of effort has been made to try to be as accurate as possible. But   information about distribution tends to be scarce and fragmentary, and errors or misinterpretation are possible and/or probable. Please keep in mind that any errors are unintentional, and will be cheerfully corrected upon notification And that this is a not for profit attempt to document otherwise unavailable aspects of binocular history by optics enthusiasts, for the benefit of optics enthusiasts. The distinction between Japanese manufacturers, exporters, and distributors and importing country wholesale and retail distribution may be blurred, so I have been generous about inclusion.

Historical Information: Wholesale Distributors. Historische Informationen: Großhandel Distributoren. Information Historique : la Distribution en Gros. 歴史情報:卸売販売代理店 . Историческая справка : Оптовая Дистрибьюторы. Historisk Information : Partihandlare. Información Histórica : Distribuidores al por Mayor.

J.J. VICKERS & SONS LTD.   (UK)

    UK     

   MARKET

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: (distributed or sales agent ) GREENKAT BINOCULARS, SWIFT BINOCULARS, SAVOY BINOCULARS, SWALLOW BINOCULARS  

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed or sales agent) CARL ZEISS DELTRINIM & THEATRIS BINOCULARS, SWIFT SCOUT BINOCULARS, GREENKAT BINOCULARS, BECK KASSEL OZELOT BINOCULARS, ROSS BINOCULARS, OPTOMAX BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, UK (GOVT) COMPANIES HOUSE

J. J. Vickers & Sons of 80-82 Royal St. Greenwich London SE10 UK (in 1969) was founded 1/8/1925, and still exists, listed by companies house as “sales agents”. It is confirmed by documentation that J.J. Vickers and sons specifically handled Savoy 7x18 miniature binoculars, and Perl 7x18 miniature binoculars, presumably among others, in the late 1960’s. More recent directories still list them for binoculars, but in Chatham, Kent.

    UK     

   MARKET

GRAFTON OPTICAL CO. LTD. (UK)

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: (distributed, perhaps imported ) ZUIHO BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (probably distributed, perhaps imported ) EXCELSIOR BINOCULARS, LUXO STAR BINOCULARS,

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, UK (GOVT) COMPANIES HOUSE  

Grafton Optical Co of 1 & 3 Worship St. London EC2 UK (in 1969) was incorporated 7/1/1954, and still exists and is currently located at Crown Hall, the Crescent, Watford, UK, distributing ophthalmic instruments.

CENTURY OPTICAL CO. LTD. (UK)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed, perhaps imported ) MANON BINOCULARS, PERL BINOCULARS, MICRON BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (probably distributed, perhaps imported ) PSAR BINOCULARS,   SIXETTE BINOCULARS, SPERBER BINOCULARS, TELEMAN BINOCULARS, HEURTEL & REUSS, HULL BINOCULARS, BECK KASSEL OCTETTE BINOCULARS, PANDEKAR BINOCULARS, PANSEPTAR BINOCULARS, PICCOLO BINOCULARS, MAGNOCTAR BINOCULARS.

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, UK (GOVT) COMPANIES HOUSE, OPTICAL YEAR BOOK 1971

Century OptIcal Co of 164-6 Tottenham Road Court London W1 UK (in 1969) was dissolved 8/3/1994. Additional records were archived by Companies House and made unavailable. A listing in “Autocar” indicates they were active in 1960. It is confirmed by documentation in the 1971 World Trade Yearbook that Century Optical   specifically distributed Perl 6x15 miniature binoculars, and Perl 8x20 miniature binoculars in the UK.

GREENHILL AND ELLIS LTD. (UK)

    UK     

   MARKET

    UK     

   MARKET

    UK     

   MARKET

Greenhill & Ellis Advertisement 1969

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed, imported ) GREENKAT BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (probably distributed, perhaps imported ) GREENKAT BINOCULARS,

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, CHEMIST AND DRUGGIST 1964

Greenhill and Ellis Ltd. of Long House Dominion St London EC2 UK (in 1964 & 1969) related (predecessor or successor) to Greenkat Ltd, 26a St Dustans Hall, Cheam, Surrey, which held trademark for Greenkat for binoculars filed 12/6/1962, with logo filed 3/27/1979 . I cannot find Greenkat Ltd in the UK Companies House records, and the records for Greenhill and Ellis Ltd have been archived so I cannot view them. It is confirmed by documentation that Greenhill and Ellis specifically distributed Greenkat 6x18 miniature binoculars in the UK.

J.J. SILBER LTD.   (UK)

    UK     

   MARKET

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: (distributed and/or imported ) HANSA BINOCULARS, GLANZ BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (probably distributed, perhaps imported ) DENKAR BINOCULARS, CANON BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK, UK (GOVT) COMPANIES HOUSE, BRITISH JOURNAL OF PHOTOGRAPHY VOL 123 1976

J.J. Silber Ltd of 11 Northburgh St London EC1 UK (in 1969) was incorporated on 2/10/1952, and was apparently dissolved around 1992. During the 1970’s the company was located at Engineers Way, Wembley, Middlesex and distributed a wide variety of photographic equipment including Balda cameras in the 1950s and cannon products later.

PULLIN PHOTOGRAPHIC LTD.   (UK)

    UK     

   MARKET

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed and/or imported ) NIKON BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed and/or imported ) NIKON BINOCULARS,

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK

Pullin Photographic Ltd was listed as being at 11 Aintree Rd Perivale Greenford Middlesex.

It is confirmed by documentation in the Photo Trade Yearbook 1969 that Pullin specifically distributed the Nikon 7x15 miniature binoculars in the UK.

PURSER’S LONDON (HOLBORN) LTD.   (UK)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed?) LUNA BINOCULARS , SUPREMA BINOCULARS, CORTINA BINOCULAR, GREENKAT BINOCULARS

  FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed?) GREENKAT BINOCULARS, BARR & STROUD BINOCULARS, LUNA BINOCULARS,

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK

It is confirmed by documentation that Pursers specifically distributed Cortina 7x18 miniature binoculars, Cortina 7x15 miniature binoculars, Cortina 8x 20 miniature binoculars, and Cortina 10x20 miniature binoculars, presumably among other miniature binoculars. No companies house information could be found.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (probably distributed, perhaps imported ) SCOPE BINOCULARS , BELVEDERE BINOCULARS, SIMOR BINOCULARS, ORION BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (probably distributed, perhaps imported ) REGENT BINOCULARS, REGENTLUX BINOCULARS, HENSOLDT BINOCULARS, SLIMLINE BINOCULARS, STERN HARTMANN BINOCULARS, KARL HARTMAN BINOCULARS, NEWMARKET BINOCULARS, EPSOM BINOCULARS, FERNSEH BINOCULARS, ORION BINOCULARS, STERN BINOCULARS, HARTMANN BINOCULARS, VIPER BINOCULARS, ZEIKA BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK

HIGHGATE OPTICAL & INDUSTRIAL CO. (UK)

E. HILL & CO (UK)

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (importer & distributors) SOLUS BINOCULARS, COMET BINOCULARS, ZENITH BINOCULARS, MERCURY BINOCULARS, OLYMPIC BINOCULARS, CONDOR BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (importer & distributor) HILKINSON BINOCULARS, BECK KASSEL OZELOT/DIORIT BINOCULARS, DEKAREM BINOCULARS, BINOCTEM BINOCULARS, KOLIBRI BINOCULARS, LUCHS BINOCULARS, PENTEKAREM BINOCULARS, PLANET BINOCULARS, DELTRINTEM BINOCULARS, DELTRINO BINOCULARS, KOBOLD BINOCULARS, MARE BINOCULARS, CARL ZEISS THURMON/SILVEREM BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK

Highgate OptIcal and Industrial Co was listed as occupying 71-3 Great Portland St., London W1 UK and related Highgate Optical Manufacturing Co was listed at 184   Gt Portland St London W1 (in 1969). No record could be found under that name at UK Companies House. It is confirmed by documentation that Highgate Optical specifically distributed Orion 8x20 miniature binoculars, presumably among others.

E. Hill & Co of Hilkinson Works, Potters Rd, New Barnet, Herts was established in the 1930’s. . It is confirmed by documentation that E. Hill & Co specifically distributed Solus 8x20 miniature binoculars in the UK in the late 1960’s.

E. ESDAILE AND SONS PTY LTD (AUSTRALIA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (believed owned ) ESDAILE & SONS SYDNEY BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: E. ESDAILE & SONS (book: State Library of New South Wales), TROVE, (obituary of founder), ESDAILE FAMILY HISTORY

E. Esdaile Optician was founded as a manufacturing Optician around 1894, and later became   E. Esdaile and Sons around 1947, and was located at 11 Hunter St and later 42 Hunter St., Sydney, New South Wales Australia. They sold and/or distributed optical goods and scientific instruments from around 1894-1962, including binoculars, barometers, barographs, levels, stop watches and drafting equipment. This included miniature pattern binoculars marked ESDAILE & SONS SYDNEY

PYSER BRITEX SALES LTD.

SWIFT-PYSER (UK)

Pyser Britex Advertisement 1969

Hygate Optical Advertisement 1969

Pyser Britex Sales Ltd. 246/250 Regent St London UK also Firecroft Way, Edenbridge Kent, UK (under this and several similar names) were the distributor for Swift Optical goods including binoculars. It is confirmed by documentation that Pyser Britex specifically distributed Swift 7x18 miniature binoculars and Swift Sport 7x25 miniature binoculars, presumably among others. Pyser –Britex Ltd was incorporated Nov 4, 1953. Pyser Britex also distributed microscopes.

RANK PHOTOGRAPHIC (UK)

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (distributed ?) ASAHI OPTICAL BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed ?) ASAHI OPTICAL BINOCULARS  

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK  

Rank Photographic was listed at Aintree Rd, Perivale, Greenford, Middlesex. ). I could find no UK Companies House information on them.

      UK

   MARKET

L’OPTIC MODERN LTD. (UK)

      UK

   MARKET

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (distributed ?) SKYBOLT BINOCULARS, GLORY BINOCULARS, BELVEDERE BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed ?) ROSS BINOCULARS, CARL ZEISS BINOCULARS, SAARBOURG BINOCULARS, BOSCHE BINOCULARS, L’OM BINOCULARS, FERNSEH BINOCULARS  

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK  

L’Optic Modern Ltd. was listed at 71 Great Portland St. London W1. I could find no UK Companies House information on them. In addition to binoculars astronomical telescopes of their brand have been observed.

VALENTINE AND CARR LTD. (UK)

      UK

   MARKET

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (distributed ?) YASHICA BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (distributed ?) YASHICA BINOCULARS  

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: PHOTO TRADE WORLD YEARBOOK & DIRECTORY 1969/ FOUNTAIN PRESS UK  

Valentine And Carr Ltd. was listed at 7 Charlotte St. London W1 and at Brampton Road trading Estate, Hampden Park, Eastbourne. I could find no UK Companies House information on them.

GERBER OPTICIAL SUPPLIES (AUSTRALIA)

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (owned) GERBER BINOCULARS

FULL SIZE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (owned) GERBER BINOCULARS  

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: GERBER WEBSITE

Gerber Optical supplies of 64-76 Kippax St. Surry Hills NSW is a wholesale distributor of binoculars and sports optics and was founded in 1977 according to their website. It is unclear if they are still trading. A google company link says closed and the website now seems shut down

HAGEMEYER EXPORT & IMPORT CO., LTD (JAPAN)

Sub. HAGEMEYER N.V. (NETHERLANDS)

  WORLDWIDE

           MARKETS

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (believed owned) HACO BINOCULARS, SUPER HACO BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: DIAMOND’S JAPAN BUSINESS DIRETORY 1990, FUNDING UNIVERSE, INFOPEDIA

Hagemeyer Trading was founded in the 1890’s and incorporated in 1904 as the Dutch Trading Co Hagemejier & Co., in Surabaya in Java, importing goods from the Netherlands into the Netherlands East Indies. The company now is focused on the eletrotechnical industry and has subsidiaries in Sweden, Norway, Finland, Russia, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Peoples Republic of China, Germany, Czech Republic, the UK, Guernsey, Jersey, Ireland, Austria, Switzerland, USA, Canada, Mexico, Chile, Belgium, Spain, Denmark, Spain and elsewhere.   The Japanese subsidiary Hagemeyer Export and Import Co., Ltd handled the Haco and Super Haco miniature binoculars in the past when the company handled consumer products , and I suspect that brand name HACO binoculars to be derived from Ha gemeyer Co .

IVECO ISRAEL WEISSBORT (GERMANY)

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (owned) IVEO BINOCULARS  

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: UK COMPANIES HOUSE, HANDELSREGISTER INFORMATIONEN

Iveco Israel Weissbort with several addresses in Stuttgart Germany was an import export wholeslw firm which held a German trademark for “Iveco” for binoculars, filed 7/3/1961 and terminated in 2001. I believe the firm was better known for patented packaging machinery and process utilizing plastic film, which they developed around 1965-1966. That part of the business was sold and is still active, but it appears the portion of the business that handled binoculars has closed.  

SANYO PHOTO SUPPLY CORP. (JAPAN)

HAKUBA PHOTO INDUSTRY CO LTD. ハクバ写真産業株式会社 ( JAPAN)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (believed owned ) SANYO   BINOCULARS, HAKUBA BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: BLOOMBERG

Sanyo Photo Supply Corp was founded in 1955 as a Japanese wholesale importer/exporter of photographic equipment and accessories. In 1976 the company hanged it’s name to Hakuba Photo Industry Co Ltd, and is still active and today is located at 1-3-7, Kamezawa, Sumida –ku, Tokyo, Japan 130-0014.

KUROKI OPTICAL INSTRUMENT CO. (JAPAN)

KUROKI KŌGAKU KŌGYŌ CO. LTD

KUROKI OPTICAL CO. LTD., 関東光学株式会社

    USA     

   MARKET

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (believed owned) KANTO BINOCULARS, KANTO CAROL BINOCULARS, KANTO ROSETTE BINOCULARS, GLANZ BINOCULARS, PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: FOREIGN COMMERCE WEEKLY 1949 ADVERTISEMENT, 1958 OWENS REGISTER, 1959 BINOCULARS MANUFACTURERS LIST, 1966 OPTICAL INDUSTRY AND SYSTEMS

OFITRA/ OVERSEAS FINANCE AND TRADING CO., INC. (USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (handled): NIPPON KOGAKU BINOCULARS/ NIKON BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: ) NIKON JOURNAL/NIKON HISTORICAL SOCIETY, POPULAR PHOTOGRAPHY 1951, PHOTOGRAPHY JAN 1991

The Overseas Finance and trading Co., Inc. of 826 Merchants Exchange Building, San Francisco California USAhad exclusive USA and US military worldwide PX (post exchange) distribution for Nippon Kogaku/ Nikon products from April 1950 to 1953, after which it was taken over by Ehrenreich Photo Optical Industries until their purchase in 1981 by Nikon. OFITRA was owned by Uno Lindholm,, a Swedish entrepreneur with Japanese connections, and had offices in Stockholm Sweden and Tokyo Japan as well as San Francisco and had not handled optical products previously.

    USA     

   MARKET

      USA     

  MILITARY POST

     EXCHANGE

       MARKET

MICHAUD INC. (USA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (believed used): MICHAUD BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: ) 1982 CUSTOMS COURT CASE, CHILTON JEWELERS CIRCULAR 1970& 1981, CALIFORNIA SECRETARY OF STATE

US importer Michaud Inc of 630 Santa Monica Blvd., Los Angeles California USA established around 1957 and active until around 1993, was believed to have imported binoculars under the Michaud name, including miniature models.

    USA     

   MARKET

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CONSUMERS DISTRIBUTING LTD. (USA)

LA COMPAGNIE DISTRIBUTION AU CONSUMMATEURS LIMITEE (CANADA)

    USA     

   MARKET

  CANADIAN

       MARKET

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (OWNED): SKYLINE BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: US PATENT & TRADEMARK OFFICE, TRULIA, WIKIPEDIA

Founded in 1957, the catalog showroom company Consumers Distributing Ltd had at it’s peak 243 outlets in Canada, plus 217 outlets in the USA (in NH, Ct, Ma, NY, NJ, Pa, Md, Ca & Nv). They held a US trademark for SKYLINE BINOCULARS from 1979, as well as for opera glasses, monoculars, telescopes, spotting scopes, and around 60 other items related to sporting goods. The name had presumably been used for a while before the trademark. Customers would select products from catalogs at home, and visit the showroom/warehouse to pick them up. The company went bankrupt in 1996.

EDWARD MARCUS LTD. (UK)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (BELIEVED OWNED): MARCUS LVA BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: EDWARD MARCUS LTD WEBSITE, UK COMPANIES HOUSE

     UK

  MARKET

  IRISH

   MARKET

Founded in may of 1945, Edward Marcus Ltd. of Wombell, Barnsley, UK is a specialist distributor of LVA/ L ow V ision A ids to Optometrists, Opticians, and various associations, schools, and other distribution channels

  WALES

    MARKET

ITO KŌGAKU KIKAI SEISAKUJO INC. (JAPAN)

ITOH OPTICAL CO.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (BELIEVED OWNED): LINET BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: JAPANESE BINOCULAR MANUFACTURERS LIST 1957 (EUROPA/PETER ABRAMS), OBSERVATION OF MARKINGS ON FULL SIZE LINET BINOCULARS

Ito Kogaku Kikai Seisakujo Inc, also known as Itoh Optical Co. (the latter may be a distribution subsidiary) is listed as being an assembling manufacturer and located at 5-227 Ikebukuro, Toshima-Ku, Tokyo, Japan in 1957. They are believed to have distributed binoculars under the LINET BINOCULARS name. They appear by JB code as a manufacturer of some full size binoculars, but Linet miniature pattern binoculars observed so far were manufactured by Meiji Seiko Kōgaku.  

LEAH JANA ENTERPRISES, INC. (USA)

Probably also JANA ENTERPRISES, INC.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (BELIEVED OWNED): JANA BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: OPEN CORPORATES, NYS DIV OF CORPORATIONS, POPULAR SCIENCE AD

(NOTE: partly speculative). Leah Jana Enterprises Inc (1984-1992) of 1671 East 16th St Brooklyn NY USA and 4424 Bedford Ave Brooklyn NY USA is tied to miniature binoculars, and the firm Jana Enterprises Inc (1975-1981), also of New York, may have been related. One or both may have been responsible for the “ Jana ” brand of miniature binoculars, as the name seems more likely linked than coincidental.

KANTO OPTICAL INSTRUMENT CO. (JAPAN)

KANTŌ KŌGAKU KABUSHIKI KAISHA / 関東光学株式会社

KANTO OPTICAL CO.

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS (believed owned): LICHTER BINOCULARS

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: STATEMENT IN BOOK “ BINOCULARS AND SCOPES” BY ROBERT & ELSA REICHERT (JAPANASIA TRADE DIRECTORY (1956), JAPAN TRADE GUIDE (1954), LIST OF JAPANESE BINOCULAR MANUFACTURERS (1959)

An advertisement in the 1949 Foreign Commerce Weekly states “Kanto Optical Inst. Mfg. Inc. (manufacturers and exporters) of #3 Koto-hira cho, Minatoku Shiba, Tokyo seeks United States markets for ‘Glanz’ binoculars, prismglas and opera glasses”. This positively links Glanz to Kanto, as do markings on full size binoculars linking Glanz to Kanto to K.O.C. as shown. Kanto Optical Inst Mfg Co shows up in the 1958 Owens register, and 1966 Optical Industry and Systems directory, though in the latter at 6 Nishikubo, Sakuragawa-cho, Minato ku, Tokyo, and the [probably same entity] Kanto Optical Industrial Co Ltd shows up on the 1959 list of binoculars makers, though at an address of 3, Shiba-Kotohira-cho, Minato Ku, Tokyo. Kantō Kōgaku KK, believed the same entity, also translates as kanto Optical Co., supporting the K.O.C. marking. This does raise some question on K.O.C. and K.O.I.C. markings on other brands of binoculars, such as Lichter and United. See Kuroki listing below. Kanto observed active at least 1949-1966.

Robert and Elsa Reichert state in their 1961 book “ Binoculars and Scopes”   that Lichter binoculars are distributed by the Kuroki Optical Instrument Co, and Lichter and Golden Lichter binoculars appear with   K.O.C. markings (as do Kanto binoculars, see Kanto isting above) and K.O.I.C. markings. Given the complexity of Japanese binoculars manufacture it is documented in other instances that two separate entities have used the same initials and also names, and also that two companies with different names are the manufacturing and exporting arms of the same entity, or that one subcontracted manufacture to the other.

    USA     

   MARKET

WEIDMANN & SOHN AG (SWITZERLAND)

BRANDS W/ MINIATURE BINOCULAR: : (believed owned) WESO BINOCULARS   PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: DIRECTORY LISTINGS, WEBSITE

The Swiss firm of Weidmann & Sohn of Switzerland, existing since 1912 as an importer and exporter from the Far   East, and after 1960 from Japan, was listed in various directories as the optical supplier of WESO binoculars .

C.R. KENNEDY (SALES) PTY, LTD. (AUSTRALIA)

MINIATURE BINOCULAR BRANDS: (handled) PENTAX BINOCULARS, MINOX BINOCULARS, perhaps other brands

PRIMARY SOURCES OF INFORMATION: C.R.KENNEDY WEBSITES, 1970’S AUSTRALIAN PENTAX BINOCULARS ADVERTISEMENTS

Founded in 1934, C.R. Kennedy is an importer and wholesale distributor of photographic, optical, medical, imaging, and surveying equipment to the Australian and NZ markets. From 1954 to the present time C.R. Kennedy   has been the importer of Pentax products, including binoculars. In the 1970’s the entity handling Pentax binoculars, C.R. Kennedy (Sales) Pty, Ltd operated from the Melborne suburbs of Carlton and Brunswick. At one point CR Kennedy was a   distributor of Swift microscopes: not sure about Swift binoculars.

Photo credit: Esdaile family history

MINIATUUR JAPANSE VERREKIJKERS

MINIATUROWE LORNETKI

PIENOISKOOSKA JAPANILAINEN KIIKARIT

μικροσκοπικά κιάλια

ミニチュア双眼鏡

ống nhòm mini

مناظير مصغرة اليابانيةچھوٹے جاپانی دوربین

BINÓCULOS JAPONÊS EM MINIATURA

DÛRBÎN JAPANESE XWEBIXWE

دوربین دوچشمی ژاپنی مینیاتوری

MINIATUUR JAPANESE BINOCULAERS

MINIJATURNI JAPANSKI DALEKOZOR

MINIATURNÍ JAPONSKÉ DALEKOHLEDY

MALIIT NA LARAWAN JAPANESE LARGABISTA

MINIATYURA YAPONIYA DURBIN

BINOCOLO GIAPPONESE IN MINIATURA

TEROPONG KECIL JEPUN

TYHULASI AMANCINANE JAPANESE

ỐNG NH Ò M MINIATURE NH Â T BảN

సూక్ష్మ జపనీస్ దూరదర్శిని

மினியேச்சர் ஜப்பனீஸ் தொலைநோக்கியின்

KEKERAN   JEPANG MINIATUR

کوچني د جاپان د فير

CASRIGA GHADAFI JAPANESE

MINIJATURNI JAPANSKI DALEKOZORI

MINYATI LONGVI JAPON È

L Í TIL JAPANSKA SJ Ó NAUKI

MINIAT Ü R T Á VCS Ö

DADA JAPAN BINOPKULARI

MINIATURE JAPANESE MAKA ANYA ABUO

KAKANG'ONO ZOYANG'ANIRA JAPANESE

      UK

   MARKET

AUSTRALIA       

         MARKET

EUROPE

    MARKET

AUSTRALIA       

         MARKET

AUSTRALIA       

         MARKET

GERMANY

      MARKET

SWITZERLAND

           MARKET